Lyme disease is an infection that causes arthritis and lameness and is transmitted to animals through the bite of infected ticks. If it is untreated, canine Lyme disease can cause heart, kidney, and neurological problems. It is a zoonotic disease, which means it can be spread from animals to humans. In this case, Lyme disease can be transmitted if an infected tick from a dog bites a human. Lyme disease is named for the Connecticut town, Lyme, where it was first reported. Lyme disease continues to be a problem in the Northeast U.S. because that's where the Ixodes tick that carries the disease has natural hosts, such as deer and deer mice to prey upon.
The spirochete (a microorganism that looks like a tiny strand of crimped hair) that causes Lyme disease is Borrelia burgdorferi. There are different ticks in different regions that are carriers. The tick that commonly transmits Lyme disease in the East and Midwest is Ixodes scapularis; in the West, it's Ixodes pacificus.
Humans, cattle, horses, cats, and dogs can develop Lyme disease. It occurs worldwide, but the highest incidence occurs where ticks have susceptible hosts like deer and deer mice to feed on. In the US, the concentration of ticks and their hosts is greatest in the Northeast, upper Mississippi River valley, California, and some Southern states. In these areas pets should have protection from ticks. The states with 95% of human Lyme Disease cases (the incidence in pets parallels that in people) are New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Massachusetts, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Rhode Island, Maryland, New Hampshire, Maine, and Delaware.
Lyme disease is a more serious problem for people than for pets. In pets the biggest problems are with the joints, and possibly with the kidney filtering unit, the glomerulus.
Most often, you can find ticks around the head and neck. They also like to hide between the toes, on or in the ears, around the ridges of the ears, in the armpit, and groin. Ticks can be very small so when you check your pet, look carefully. Sometimes what looks like a freckle can be a tick.
Using tweezers, grab the tick as near to your pet's skin as you can, and gently pull it straight out. Be careful not to squeeze the tick too hard when removing it because bacteria could be injected into the skin. Products like Resultix may also be helpful.